The Parathyroid Glands are small glands located in the neck, behind the Thyroid Gland. There are usually four Parathyroid Glands, two on each side of the neck; each gland is normally about the size of a grain of rice.
Hyperthyroidism is the most common disease of the Parathyroid Glands. Hyperparathyroidism is the overproduction of the Parathyroid Hormone by one or more of the glands. Hyperparathyroidism results in high levels of calcium in the blood (Hypercalcemia).
The work up for Hyperparathyroidism is usually initiated following the diagnosis of elevated calcium levels (Hypercalcemia). If further blood tests reveal an elevated Parathyroid Hormone level, Hyperparathyroidism is diagnosed.
Surgical removal of one or more Parathyroid Glands is called a Parathyroidectomy. Parathyroidectomy is the most common and effective treatment for Primary Hyperparathyroidism (enlargement of one or more Parathyroid Glands).